Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)                   2023, 12(43): 37-58 | Back to browse issues page

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Associate Professor of Economics, Researcher of Kurdistan Studies Institute, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran. , F.habibi@uok.ac.ir
Abstract:   (714 Views)
Introduction
Tourism has become a crucial component of economic and manufacturing activities in both developed and developing countries. Tourist attractions, alongside other elements, serve as the foundation of the tourism industry and create the necessary conditions to attract visitors. Many developed countries have shown that focusing on tourism is crucial for national advancement and should be a top priority. Currently, there is fierce competition among countries to draw in tourists. Tourism is a dynamic industry with distinct characteristics, and it now contributes significantly to the economic and manufacturing sectors of both developed and developing nations. Iran's government has also emphasized tourism development in recent years, implementing various methods and approaches to promote social and economic growth in different regions. Tourism has experienced significant growth over the past 20 years, becoming one of the largest and most rapidly expanding industries worldwide. It has now become a primary economic sector in many countries, generating foreign exchange earnings on a large scale. By 2020, the number of international tourists globally is projected to rise to 1.6 billion, with tourism receipts expected to reach $200 billion. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) predicts that the travel and tourism industry will remain one of the largest in the world. In 2015, the industry contributed 9.8% to the global GDP and provided 279 million jobs. By 2025, it is expected to increase to 10.5% of the global GDP and create 356 million jobs.

 Methodology
The development of Multi-Attribute Decision Procedures, including fuzzy models and multi-criteria fuzzy methods, has led to a significant breakthrough in sustainability analysis. One method that has gained considerable attention in this field is the TOPSIS technique, which stands for "Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution." TOPSIS is a method that identifies solutions from a finite set of alternatives using multiple criteria. This study aims to evaluate and prioritize cities in Kurdistan Province using the TOPSIS model. The objective of the study determines the research methodology and involves collecting descriptive data and conducting correlation analysis. The statistical population for this research comprises the residents of the villages under investigation.

Discussion and conclusion 
Tourism can potentially increase foreign exchange earnings and generate employment, making it a crucial industry for the balanced and sustainable development of Kurdistan province. The sector can create the necessary conditions to attract more visitors by focusing on tourist attractions and other key elements. Many strategies to achieve this goal involve the development of rural and urban areas. Given the high unemployment rate and the need for foreign investment, prioritizing tourism can have significant benefits for the region. The objective of this study was to use the TOPSIS model to assess and rank cities in Kurdistan province based on tourism development indicators. This will facilitate effective and suitable planning. The findings from the one-sample t-test indicate that tourism has both positive and negative impacts on the host community. The economic impact is most prominently seen in terms of income and employment. Additionally, the positive perception of the local populace towards tourism is considered a key social and cultural benefit.
On the other hand, reduction of participation in rural development, loss of rural customs, culture, and local values, and inappropriate modeling of tourists are negative effects of tourism. The results showed that tourism has had adverse environmental effects by destroying the natural landscape of the village, irregular construction, and changing agricultural land use. Also, the ranking results show that the villages of Selin, Palangan, and Zhivar are ranked first to third, respectively. The villages of Balbar, Negel, Dolab, Salvatabad, Darahfi, Maghsah, Najne, Surin, Noura, and Ghomchaghi are ranked fourth to thirteenth, respectively. The sensitivity analysis results showed that Palangan, Celine, and Salavat Abad villages were ranked first to third in different conditions. According to the results, public sector investment in infrastructures, especially roads, and private sector investment is recommended in higher-ranked villages in eco-tourism, handicrafts, and related industries.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2023/06/19 | Accepted: 2023/04/30

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