Volume 12, Issue 43 (Spring 2023 2023)                   2023, 12(43): 115-130 | Back to browse issues page

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Torkashvand Z, Heidarian A, Faraji Sabokbar H A. Factors affecting identifying rural entrepreneurship opportunities from Afghan immigrants' perspective (Case study: Varamin County). SPACE ECONOMY & RURAL DEVELOPMENT 2023; 12 (43) :115-130
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3913-en.html
1- Assistant Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. , ztorkashvand@ut.ac.ir
2- Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3- Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (661 Views)
Introduction
Migration is a behavior driven by various motives, including education, job search, welfare, and escape from war. In recent decades, there has been an increase in the international migration of Afghan people to neighboring countries, particularly Iran. The impact of migration on a country's development is significant, and skilled and unskilled migration significantly impacts the economy of countries.
Many villages in Iran are currently experiencing slow development and require a strong driving force to bridge the gap. Entrepreneurship is a valuable tool for innovation, changing the primary force behind economic growth and development and a solution for the economic and social advancement of villages in numerous countries. Additionally, Afghan immigrants have been an integral part of the workforce in rural areas for years, whether willingly or unwillingly. They typically reside in regions where labor demand is relatively high and have been able to take advantage of entrepreneurial opportunities in villages near the country's capital. This study addresses the factors that Afghan immigrants consider when identifying entrepreneurial opportunities.
Varamin County is located in Tehran Province. In the past two decades, due to the creation of various jobs in the agricultural and service sectors, it has become one of the most suitable places for Afghan immigrants to immigrate. This research examines rural entrepreneurship opportunities from Afghan immigrants' perspective.

Methodology
For this study, we utilized an applied and developmental approach with a descriptive-analytical methodology and conducted a survey. To gather data, we administered a questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale. The sample size was determined using Cochran's formula, resulting in 374 Afghan immigrants residing in rural areas. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation statistics for description and inferential statistics for analysis. In order to check if the data was normal, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was utilized.
Additionally, to examine the correlation between the research variables, the one-sample t-test was implemented. The study focused on identifying opportunities for rural entrepreneurship as perceived by Afghan immigrants. The evaluation was conducted from four dimensions: economic-financial, cultural-social, personality-individual, and political-administrative. Each dimension was assessed based on multiple indicators.
The study is performed in Varamin County with eight sections, four towns, and 216 villages. It is one of Tehran province's industrial and agricultural hubs, with rural and urban populations of 14130 and 34062 people, respectively. In addition, 48192 Afghan immigrants live in this county.

Discussion and conclusion
According to the Afghan women immigrants' viewpoint, the total direct effects amount to 1.931. Regarding indirect communications, the indicators with the highest and lowest levels of influence are personality-individual (1.951) and political-administrative (0.371), respectively. As for the direct relationship intensity, the indicators with the highest and lowest values are personality-individual (0.622) and political-administrative (0.371).
According to Afghan male immigrants, the total direct effect is 1.394. Regarding indirect communication, personality-individual indicators have the highest impact at 1.887, while economic-financial indicators have the lowest impact at 0.424. Based on Figure 4, the highest and lowest impact intensities of direct relationships are caused by personality-individual indicators at 0.682 and economic-financial indicators at 0.424, respectively.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2023/06/19 | Accepted: 2023/04/30

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