Volume 5, Issue 15 (5-2016)                   اقتصاد فضا 2016, 5(15): 173-199 | Back to browse issues page


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Sadeghloo T, Sojasi Ghidari H, Riahi V. Assessing eco environmental effects of mining extractive industries on the sustainability of rural areas Case: villages surrounding Zanjan cement factory. اقتصاد فضا. 2016; 5 (15) :173-199
URL: http://serd.khu.ac.ir/article-1-2596-en.html
1- Assistant Prof. in Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. , tsadeghloo@um.ac.ir
2- Assistant Prof. in Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
3- Associate Prof. in Geography and Rural Planning, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (2234 Views)
Introduction
Rural industrialization has been greatly discussed by researchers in recent studies of rural planning and development. It is due to its positive effects of economic, social and infrastructural factors. Moreover, researches are looking for ways to analyzed approaches to reduce harmful environmental impacts of industrial projects, as destructive life factors of geographical territory, in rural areas. For example, according to Misra and Chyvta (1990); rural industrialization and the prevalence of non-agricultural activities can seriously affect the increase of social welfare and providing essential goods and services for rural households. Experiences by several countries prove the fact that every structural change that happens because of industrialization, not only has an important economic role in rural areas, but also led to self-repulsive economy, as well. In addition to studying positive economic, social and physical aspects, it is needed to do some preparatory studies on negative eco-environmental effects of rural industrialization for proper siting of such industries to reduce its harmful eco-environmental and human effects and improve spatial planning.
In this study, we have used a new approach to investigate rural industrialization and the
establishment of large mining – extractive industries in rural areas. Todays, thanks to villages forming a wide range of local-spatial area of the country, they have rich mineral resources in their geographical territory which their extraction may cause economic-infrastructure effects as well as other negative eco-environmental effects such as the changing use of agricultural land, soil and water pollution, vegetation loss, and landscape change over time. Two main questions of the research are 1) In terms of sustainability, how is the economic, social and environmental status of surrounding villages of Zanjan cement plant? 2) How is the current situation of ecoenvironmental effects of minning- extractive industry of Zanjan cement factory on surrounding rural areas, according to ICOLD,and Prometea techniques.
Methodology
This study is an analytical explanation using library and field study. Field data have been collected by questionnaires after the identification of variables. Then, the required data have been collected in the intended study area. Samples have been managed in two different social levels: 36 people from local experts (Council and village head assistants) using census method for ICOLD matrices, and 295 individuals from the head of the households selected among local people of villages to assess eco-environmental effects of using Prometea multivariate technique in villages by the use of Cochran formula of Alpha= 0.05. The already designed questionnaires have been modified in ICOLD matrices covering several factors of physio-chemical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural infrastructure environments that include 41sub criteria, totally. Collected data have been finally analyzed by ICOLD environmental assessment method and Promote multivariate techniques.
Discussion and conclusion
One of the new challenges facing rural planning when it is getting applied, is the presence of two viewpoints: environmentalism, and rural industrialization. Villages are accumulation points of environmental resources that, according to the theory of Sustainable Development, it is essential to protect them. In addition, we aim at diversifying economic sector by supporting rural industrial projects. Integration of the two approaches needs the evaluation of environmental effects of industrial activities to help moderate the intensity of environmental effects of industrial projects in rural areas. In this research, we are intended to study industrial mining extractive project of Zanjan cement factory, located and operated in a rural district, to analyze its eco-environmental effects on rural areas. Results from ICOLD demonstrates that its eco-environmental effects vary by distance, i.e., the nearer the villages are, the more they will be threatened by these effects, or vice versa.
Results from promote technic confirm the same. Since, villages in disturbed areas within the distance of less than 5 kilometers from the factory or less than 1 kilometer from the communication route to raw stone mining site, show the highest level of eco-environmental instability. These villages include; Majid Abad (rated at 81%), Zarand (rated as 73%) and Mazidabad (rated at 67%), respectively. These villages are close to the factory and to the passage of vehicles carrying raw stone. Much of the physical area of the factory is located in agricultural land of two villages of Majid Abad and Mazidabad. Moreover, wind direction of the area mostly causes much of the pollution from factory dust distributes in other agricultural areas of MajidAbad. Another village which its eco-environment has been recently affected is Zarand, located in a foothill area near to the raw stone mining site. Dust from loading raw stones, noise pollution caused by the breakage of the rock, animals and wildlife breaking out of the area, and destruction of crops and plants are among the major environmental damage in this area. Thus, we suggest to reduce environmental pollution from factories in rural areas by reviewing some ways of factory activities such as transportation of raw materials, methods used for the extraction of raw stones, development of appropriate transport infrastructures, installation of air pollution controlling systems, increase in the plantation of more green spaces within the margins of the factory, good management of wastewater and their disposal system.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2014/08/8 | Accepted: 2015/04/26

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